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The earliest known took place during Precambrian time dating back more than million years. The most recent periods of widespread glaciation occurred during the Pleistocene Epoch 2.
A lesser, recent glacial stage called the Little Ice Age began in the 16th century and advanced and receded intermittently over three centuries in Europe and many other regions.
Its maximum development was reached about , at which time glaciers were more widespread on Earth than at any time since the last major ice age ended about 11, years ago.
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The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sep 21, See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: In fact, expansion of the Antarctic….
The climatic modulations that occur at shorter scales include such periods as the Little Ice Age from the early 14th to the midth centuries,….
The great Quaternary ice ages, which came later, were very important in altering the distribution of animals over a large part of the world, but migrations occurred long before.
During the Ice Age the sea level fell by several hundred feet, making the strait into a land bridge between the continents of Asia and North America, over which a considerable migration of plants and animals occurred.
More About Ice age 5 references found in Britannica articles effect on migration of animals and plants In migration: The atmosphere Quaternary In Quaternary: The geological record appears to show that ice ages start when the continents are in positions which block or reduce the flow of warm water from the equator to the poles and thus allow ice sheets to form.
The ice sheets increase Earth's reflectivity and thus reduce the absorption of solar radiation. With less radiation absorbed the atmosphere cools; the cooling allows the ice sheets to grow, which further increases reflectivity in a positive feedback loop.
The ice age continues until the reduction in weathering causes an increase in the greenhouse effect. There are three main contributors from the layout of the continents that obstruct the movement of warm water to the poles: Since today's Earth has a continent over the South Pole and an almost land-locked ocean over the North Pole, geologists believe that Earth will continue to experience glacial periods in the geologically near future.
Some scientists believe that the Himalayas are a major factor in the current ice age, because these mountains have increased Earth's total rainfall and therefore the rate at which carbon dioxide is washed out of the atmosphere, decreasing the greenhouse effect.
The history of the Himalayas broadly fits the long-term decrease in Earth's average temperature since the mid-Eocene , 40 million years ago.
Another important contribution to ancient climate regimes is the variation of ocean currents , which are modified by continent position, sea levels and salinity, as well as other factors.
They have the ability to cool e. The closing of the Isthmus of Panama about 3 million years ago may have ushered in the present period of strong glaciation over North America by ending the exchange of water between the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Analyses suggest that ocean current fluctuations can adequately account for recent glacial oscillations. This realigned the thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic, increasing heat transport into the Arctic, which melted the polar ice accumulation and reduced other continental ice sheets.
The release of water raised sea levels again, restoring the ingress of colder water from the Pacific with an accompanying shift to northern hemisphere ice accumulation.
According to Kuhle, the plate-tectonic uplift of Tibet past the snow-line has led to a surface of c. The reflection of energy into space resulted in a global cooling, triggering the Pleistocene Ice Age.
Because this highland is at a subtropical latitude, with 4 to 5 times the insolation of high-latitude areas, what would be Earth's strongest heating surface has turned into a cooling surface.
Kuhle explains the interglacial periods by the ,year cycle of radiation changes due to variations in Earth's orbit.
This comparatively insignificant warming, when combined with the lowering of the Nordic inland ice areas and Tibet due to the weight of the superimposed ice-load, has led to the repeated complete thawing of the inland ice areas.
The Milankovitch cycles are a set of cyclic variations in characteristics of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. Each cycle has a different length, so at some times their effects reinforce each other and at other times they partially cancel each other.
There is strong evidence that the Milankovitch cycles affect the occurrence of glacial and interglacial periods within an ice age. The present ice age is the most studied and best understood, particularly the last , years, since this is the period covered by ice cores that record atmospheric composition and proxies for temperature and ice volume.
The combined effects of the changing distance to the Sun, the precession of the Earth's axis , and the changing tilt of the Earth's axis redistribute the sunlight received by the Earth.
Of particular importance are changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis, which affect the intensity of seasons. It is widely believed that ice sheets advance when summers become too cool to melt all of the accumulated snowfall from the previous winter.
Some believe that the strength of the orbital forcing is too small to trigger glaciations, but feedback mechanisms like CO 2 may explain this mismatch.
While Milankovitch forcing predicts that cyclic changes in the Earth's orbital elements can be expressed in the glaciation record, additional explanations are necessary to explain which cycles are observed to be most important in the timing of glacial—interglacial periods.
In particular, during the last , years, the dominant period of glacial—interglacial oscillation has been , years, which corresponds to changes in Earth's orbital eccentricity and orbital inclination.
Yet this is by far the weakest of the three frequencies predicted by Milankovitch. During the period 3.
The reasons for dominance of one frequency versus another are poorly understood and an active area of current research, but the answer probably relates to some form of resonance in the Earth's climate system.
Recent work suggests that the K year cycle dominates due to increased southern-pole sea-ice increasing total solar reflectivity.
The "traditional" Milankovitch explanation struggles to explain the dominance of the ,year cycle over the last 8 cycles.
Muller , Gordon J. MacDonald ,    and others have pointed out that those calculations are for a two-dimensional orbit of Earth but the three-dimensional orbit also has a ,year cycle of orbital inclination.
They proposed that these variations in orbital inclination lead to variations in insolation, as the Earth moves in and out of known dust bands in the solar system.
Although this is a different mechanism to the traditional view, the "predicted" periods over the last , years are nearly the same.
Another worker, William Ruddiman , has suggested a model that explains the ,year cycle by the modulating effect of eccentricity weak ,year cycle on precession 26,year cycle combined with greenhouse gas feedbacks in the 41, and 26,year cycles.
Yet another theory has been advanced by Peter Huybers who argued that the 41,year cycle has always been dominant, but that the Earth has entered a mode of climate behavior where only the second or third cycle triggers an ice age.
This would imply that the ,year periodicity is really an illusion created by averaging together cycles lasting 80, and , years.
The jumps are induced by the orbital forcing, while in the early Pleistocene the 41,year glacial cycles resulted from jumps between only two climate states.
A dynamical model explaining this behavior was proposed by Peter Ditlevsen. At times during the paleoclimate, carbon dioxide levels were two or three times greater than today.
Volcanoes and movements in continental plates contributed to high amounts of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide from volcanoes probably contributed to periods with highest overall temperatures.
The current ice age, called the Quaternary glaciation , which began 2. The interglacials lasted about 10,—20, years. The major glacial stages of the current ice age in North America are the Illinoian , Eemian and Wisconsin glaciation.
The use of the Nebraskan, Afton, Kansan, and Yarmouthian stages to subdivide the ice age in North America has been discontinued by Quaternary geologists and geomorphologists.
These stages have all been merged into the Pre-Illinoian in the s. During the most recent North American glaciation, during the latter part of the Last Glacial Maximum 26, to 13, years ago , ice sheets extended to about 45th parallel north.
These sheets were 3 to 4 kilometres 1. This Wisconsin glaciation left widespread impacts on the North American landscape. The Great Lakes and the Finger Lakes were carved by ice deepening old valleys.
Most of the lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin were gouged out by glaciers and later filled with glacial meltwaters. The old Teays River drainage system was radically altered and largely reshaped into the Ohio River drainage system.
Other rivers were dammed and diverted to new channels, such as Niagara Falls , which formed a dramatic waterfall and gorge, when the waterflow encountered a limestone escarpment.
The area from Long Island to Nantucket, Massachusetts was formed from glacial till , and the plethora of lakes on the Canadian Shield in northern Canada can be almost entirely attributed to the action of the ice.
As the ice retreated and the rock dust dried, winds carried the material hundreds of miles, forming beds of loess many dozens of feet thick in the Missouri Valley.
Post-glacial rebound continues to reshape the Great Lakes and other areas formerly under the weight of the ice sheets. The Driftless Area , a portion of western and southwestern Wisconsin along with parts of adjacent Minnesota , Iowa , and Illinois , was not covered by glaciers.
A specially interesting climatic change during glacial times has taken place in the semi-arid Andes. Beside the expected cooling down in comparison with the current climate, a significant precipitation change happened here.
From this follows that—beside of an annual depression of temperature about c. Accordingly, at glacial times the humid climatic belt that today is situated several latitude degrees further to the S, was shifted much further to the N.
Although the last glacial period ended more than 8, years ago, its effects can still be felt today. The erratic boulders , till , drumlins , eskers , fjords , kettle lakes , moraines , cirques , horns , etc.
The weight of the ice sheets was so great that they deformed the Earth's crust and mantle. After the ice sheets melted, the ice-covered land rebounded.
During glaciation, water was taken from the oceans to form the ice at high latitudes, thus global sea level dropped by about meters, exposing the continental shelves and forming land-bridges between land-masses for animals to migrate.
During deglaciation , the melted ice-water returned to the oceans, causing sea level to rise. This process can cause sudden shifts in coastlines and hydration systems resulting in newly submerged lands, emerging lands, collapsed ice dams resulting in salination of lakes, new ice dams creating vast areas of freshwater, and a general alteration in regional weather patterns on a large but temporary scale.
It can even cause temporary reglaciation. This type of chaotic pattern of rapidly changing land, ice, saltwater and freshwater has been proposed as the likely model for the Baltic and Scandinavian regions, as well as much of central North America at the end of the last glacial maximum, with the present-day coastlines only being achieved in the last few millennia of prehistory.
Also, the effect of elevation on Scandinavia submerged a vast continental plain that had existed under much of what is now the North Sea, connecting the British Isles to Continental Europe.
The redistribution of ice-water on the surface of the Earth and the flow of mantle rocks causes changes in the gravitational field as well as changes to the distribution of the moment of inertia of the Earth.
These changes to the moment of inertia result in a change in the angular velocity , axis , and wobble of the Earth's rotation. The weight of the redistributed surface mass loaded the lithosphere , caused it to flex and also induced stress within the Earth.
The presence of the glaciers generally suppressed the movement of faults below. Earthquakes triggered near the ice margin may in turn accelerate ice calving and may account for the Heinrich events.
In Europe, glacial erosion and isostatic sinking from weight of ice made the Baltic Sea , which before the Ice Age was all land drained by the Eridanos River.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Period of long-term reduction in temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere.
This article is about a generic geological period of temperature reduction. For the most recent glacial period commonly referred to as the Ice Age, see Last glacial period and Pleistocene.
For other uses, see Ice age disambiguation. Human timeline and Nature timeline. Glacial period and Interglacial.
Minimum and maximum glaciation. Minimum interglacial, black and maximum glacial, grey glaciation of the northern hemisphere.
Minimum interglacial, black and maximum glacial, grey glaciation of the southern hemisphere. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs expansion with: Recent glacial and interglacial phases in other areas outside North America.
You can help by adding to it. Glacial history of Minnesota. Carbon Dioxide, Climate and the Greenhouse Effect. Comptes Rendus Geoscience in French.
The annals of Mont Blanc. Discovering the Ice Ages. The Earth in Decay. A History of British Geomorphology — Regulator of Global Climates?: A climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis" PDF.
Retrieved 8 August Life through deep time. Archived from the original on 15 June Archived from the original PDF on June 27, An exceptionally long interglacial ahead?
Ice Sheets and Landforms. Retrieved 10 August Archived from the original PDF on Newswise, Retrieved on December 17, Development in Quaternary Science: Extent and Chronology Vol.
Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Retrieved 25 April Global Warming, Naturally Weather Underground". Archived from the original on Moscariello, , Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.
Verhandlungsblatt des Südamerika-Symposiums in Bamberg. Development in Quaternary Science. Quaternary Glaciations — Extent and Chronology: The Ice Age World: Earthquakes at North-Atlantic passive margins: Neotectonics and postglacial rebound.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Antarctica Greenland Last glacial period 1st: Antarctica 34 to 2. Karoo Mya to Mya. Andean-Saharan Mya to Mya.
Along with solar radiation levels, it is believed that global warming and cooling is connected to plate tectonic activity.
One significant outcome of the recent ice age was the development of Homo sapiens. Humans adapted to the harsh climate by developing such tools as the bone needle to sew warm clothing, and used the land bridges to spread to new regions.
By the start of the warmer Holocene epoch, humans were in position to take advantage of the favorable conditions by developing agricultural and domestication techniques.
Meanwhile, the mastodons, saber-toothed cats, giant ground sloths and other megafauna that reigned during the glacial period went extinct by its end.
The reasons for the disappearance of these giants, from human hunting to disease, are among the ice age mysteries that have yet to be fully explained.
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The Stone Age marks a period of prehistory in which humans used primitive stone tools. The Bronze Age marked the first time humans started to work with metal.
Bronze tools and weapons soon replaced earlier stone versions. Humans made many technological advances during the During the Iron Age, people across much of Europe, Asia and parts of Africa began making tools and weapons from iron and steel.
The Iron Age started between B. Despite the obvious challenges of living on Antarctica, certain plants and animals have managed to make a go of it.
During this era, America became more prosperous and Great Famine Beginning in the spring of , cold weather and torrential rains decimated crops and livestock across Europe.
Class warfare and political strife destabilized formerly prosperous countries as millions of people starved, setting the stage for the crises of the Late Led by Mark Pagel, an evolutionary biologist, the study attempts to sketch out a linguistic family tree that stretches back some 15, years to southern Europe.
Return of the Ice Age. Early Humans Survive the Ice Age. During the trek to leave the valley and reach safety, Sid and the others met a female mammoth named Ellie , along with her adoptive possum brothers Crash and Eddie , and Manny, through Sid's urgings, found a wife in Ellie, taking her and her brothers along with them as part of their herd.
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What character are you looking forward to in Ice Age: The poll was created at Retrieved from " http: The last ice age was around 11, years ago and was called " The Great Ice Age ", time where the films take place?
That Saber-tooth tigers are usually called saber-toothed tigers although they aren't related to nowadays tigers as there have been 2 main branches of felines, sabre-toothed ones and modern cats?